Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) refers to a group of polyphenolic aggregates called stilbenes. Certain plants produce resveratrol and another stilbenoid in response to stress, injury, fungal infection, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Resveratrol at https://www.cofttek.com/product/501-36-0/ is a fat-soluble mixture that happens in both trans and cis molecular arrangements. Both cis- and trans-resveratrol also occur as glucosides, i.e., bound
Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) refers to a group of polyphenolic aggregates called stilbenes. Certain plants produce resveratrol and another stilbenoid in response to stress, injury, fungal infection, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Resveratrol at https://www.cofttek.com/product/501-36-0/ is a fat-soluble mixture that happens in both trans and cis molecular arrangements. Both cis- and trans-resveratrol also occur as glucosides, i.e., bound to a glucose molecule.
Since the early 1990s, when the presence of resveratrol in red wine was established, the scientific community has been exploring the effects of resveratrol on health. Specifically, it was postulated that resveratrol intake via moderate red wine consumption might help clarify the point that French people have a comparatively feeble rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) despite consuming foods high in soaked fat, a happening dubbed the “French Paradox”.
Since then, reports on the potential for resveratrol to prevent cancer, delay the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, and extend lifespan in experimental models have continued to generate scientific interest.
METABOLISM AND BIOAVAILABILITY:
Fundamental investigations of the pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol in humans exposed only evidence of the unmetabolized resveratrol in the plasma upon oral exposure of single trans-resveratrol doses of 5 to 25 mg. Indeed, trans-resveratrol appears to be well absorbed by humans when taken orally, but its bioavailability is relatively low due to its rapid metabolism and elimination.
Formerly engrossed, resveratrol is immediately metabolized by conjugation to glucuronic acid and/or sulfate, producing resveratrol glucuronides, sulfates, and/or sulfoglucuronides. Sulfate conjugates are the major forms of resveratrol metabolites found in plasma and urine in humans. A few studies have examined the influence of the food matrix on resveratrol absorption and/or bioavailability.
One study has reported that bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine did not differ when the wine was consumed with a meal (low- or high-fat) versus on an empty stomach. Yet, in another study, the absorption of supplemental resveratrol was found to be delayed, but not reduced, by the presence of food in the stomach.
A third study found that the bioavailability of supplemental resveratrol was reduced by the amount of fat in the diet, but not by the co-administration of quercetin (another polyphenol) or alcohol.
Information about the bioavailability of resveratrol in humans is important because most of the experimental research conducted to date has been ‘preclinical,’ i.e., in vitro, exposing cells to resveratrol concentrations up to 100 times greater than peak plasma concentrations observed in humans, and in animal models given very high (non-dietary) doses of resveratrol.
While cells that line the digestive region are exhibited to unmetabolized resveratrol, other tissues are likely manifested to resveratrol metabolites. At present, little is known about the biological activity of resveratrol metabolites like β-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN). Yet, if some tissues are capable of converting resveratrol metabolites back to resveratrol, stable resveratrol conjugates in tissues could serve as a pool in the body from which resveratrol might be regenerated.